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19 novembre 2006 7 19 /11 /novembre /2006 19:20

 

Jean CHANGENET 1490
Provençal French School .
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CONSTABLE  
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CONSTABLE

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USA>Society & Culture
from the September 19, 2006 edition

(Photograph) BOOMING BUSINESS: Dominic Paz's taxi customers are mostly Hispanic these days. But Georgia's recent curbs on illegal immigration have caused concern, he says.
PATRIK JONSSON

As US nears milestone,

a rising mix of immigrants

Page 1 of 2
| Staff writers of The Christian Science Monitor
What keeps America's population clock ticking are people like Dominic Paz.

On a busy day running Alpha Taxi in Lawrenceville, Ga., he flips through a wad of $10s and $20s as he chats in both English and Spanish on two cellphones while dispatching cabs from a croaking CB radio. An immigrant from Honduras, Mr. Paz points to the blur of cars passing his home base - a bench at a strip mall that caters to Hispanics. "Two, three years ago, it was nothing like this, nothing."

(Photograph)
TO ELLIS ISLAND: Visitors approach the former port of entry.
MELANIE STETSON FREEMAN - STAFF/FILE
US population: 300 million
Part 1 - 09/12/06
Part 2 - 09/19/06
Part 3 - 09/26/06
Part 4 - 10/03/06
Part 5 - 10/10/06

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Lawrenceville has grown 27 percent in five years, and a big reason is immigration. In all of Gwinnett County, the number of foreign-born residents has nearly doubled in that time. "It's 80 percent Hispanic," Paz says. "There's a brown face everywhere you look."

While growth is slowing almost everywhere in the developed world, three factors are powering the US population toward the 300 million mark. Couples are having enough babies to replace themselves. People are living longer. And the biggest reason: Immigration to the US has sharply increased in recent decades.

Immigration is not only boosting America's numbers, it's changing the face of the country.

 That 300 millionth new person, expected in a few weeks, is just as likely to fly in from China (or wade across the Rio Grande from Mexico) as he or she is to be born here. To put it another way: Every 31 seconds another person from abroad is added to the US population roll.

The rise in newcomers - nearly quadruple the number in 1970 - has fueled a widespread backlash against illegal immigrants. That's half the story. The less familiar but also important trend is the influx of highly skilled workers and highly motivated entrepreneurs who have helped the US economy grow.

Some immigrants have high-end jobs

While 23 percent of the nation's cooks and 20 percent of its janitors were immigrants in 2000, 27 percent of new computer-software engineers were also immigrants, according to a recent Migration Policy Institute study.

Indeed, the more technically educated the group, the more likely immigrants are to be overrepresented in it. While the foreign born make up 15 percent of the overall workforce, according to the 2000 census, they constitute approximately 17 percent of those with a bachelor's degree in science and engineering occupations, 29 percent of those with a master's degree, and 39 percent of those with a doctoral degree.

Already, 1 in 5 US doctors is foreign born, as are 2 in 5 medical scientists, 1 in 5 computer specialists, 1 in 6 people in engineering or science occupations, 1 in 4 astronomers, physicists, chemical, and material scientists, and 1 in 6 biological scientists, according to another Migration Policy Institute study.

"Plainly, high-skilled immigrants are a critical resource for the knowledge-driven economy and play an important role in the country's global dominance in science and engineering and its leadership in technology," write the study's authors, Columbia University economist Neeraj Kaushal and Migration Policy Institute vice president Michael Fix.

In some ways, the nation's big population milestones - America at 100 million, 200 million, and 300 million - bookend the ebb and flow of immigrants.

In 1910, at the height of the last immigration boom and just five years shy of reaching the 100 million mark, nearly 15 percent of Americans were foreign born. For the next 60 years, that percentage dropped steadily, down to less than 5 percent.

But in 1970, not long after the US population reached 200 million, the figure began to climb again. Today, it's back up to over 12 percent.

The result: a smaller share of immigrants than in 1910, but a far greater number. Estimates put the total near 35 million (legal and illegal). That's 2-1/2 times as many immigrants as there were in 1910.

Hispanics take the lead

(Graphic) This graphic represents the share of immigrants holding jobs in the 15 fastest-growing fields. Enlarge the image for a closer look.
SOURCE: 'IMMIGRANTS AND LABOR FORCE TRENDS: THE FUTURE, PAST, AND PRESENT,' BY B. LINDSAY LOWELL AT GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY; JULIA GELATT, RESEARCHER, MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE; AND JEANNE BATALOVA, ANALYST, MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE, JULY 2006 (CITING 2000 US CENSUS 5 PERCENT PUBLIC USE MICRODATA SAMPLE).; RICH CLABAUGH - STAFF
Click here to enlarge the image

There's another difference: Whereas the early 1900s saw thousands of Europeans arriving through Ellis Island, then filling up New York's tenement buildings or pushing on to become factory workers, farmers, and shopkeepers in the Midwest, most immigrants today come from Latin America or Asia. As of 2000, 52 percent were from Latin America, 26 percent from Asia, and only 19 percent from Europe.

Immigrants are also spreading out, changing the complexion of corners of the country unaccustomed to waves of foreign-speaking newcomers.

The South, in particular, has seen rapid change: Eastern European dealers at casinos in Mobile, Ala.; Korean shopkeepers in Atlanta; Mexican Christmas tree harvesters on North Carolina's Appalachian slopes.

Some of the states with the fastest- growing immigrant populations lie in the South. Some parts of the region have seen up to 300 percent growth in immigrant populations since 1990.

Such growth is evident in Lawrenceville, the seat of Gwinnett County. Planners see a vibrant future. The county school system has set up a special language center to test new students. There are enough new immigrant children here each year to fill a new school, as they make up about 1,500 of the 7,000 additional students flowing into the school district each year.

Page 1 | 2 |     Next page


USA>Society & Culture
from the September 19, 2006 edition

(Photograph) A NEW AMERICAN: Born in the Dominican Republic, Marcel Cueva came to the US 18 years ago and recently became a US citizen. The Gainesville, Ga., cabbie, a father of four, says: 'People come for a place to raise their kids, where there's a future.'
PATRIK JONSSON

 

Page 2 of 2
 2

Ban on taco stands

But there's another side. County commissioners earlier this year banned mobile taco stands for being too trashy looking. This year, the Georgia legislature passed the Security and Immigration Compliance Act, one of the nation's toughest bills to curb illegal immigration.

 
Part 1 - 09/12/06
Part 2 - 09/19/06
Part 3 - 09/26/06
Part 4 - 10/03/06
 

   
   
   
   

The law caused a ripple of fear, says Paz in Lawrenceville. As he talks to one Mexican woman grabbing a ride, she says she'll go to Canada when the law takes effect next summer. "People are afraid," says Paz.

So are many American workers, who fear that immigrants will take their jobs. The data are inconclusive.

The Pew Hispanic Center recently used US census information to compare increases in the foreign-born population with employment opportunities at the state level. It looked at two periods in particular: the boom years of the 1990s and the downturn and recovery since 2000.

The bottom line, according to Pew associate research director Rakesh Kochhar: "The size of the foreign-born workforce in a state appears to have no relationship to the employment prospects for native-born workers."

In general, other experts agree.

"While the number of immigrants is very large, the impact on the overall economy is very small," says Steven Camarota, director of research for the Center for Immigration Studies.

But, he added in recent testimony before the House Judiciary Committee, "While the impact on the economy as a whole may be tiny, the effect on some Americans, particularly workers at the bottom of the labor market, may be quite large."

That's a major concern for those who want to see the federal government change what they see as too-liberal immigration policies and not enough border security.

"It certainly has resulted in the importation of labor substitutes for a wide variety of American workers, with the result that we're widening the wage gap for less skilled workers who've seen real wages declining," says Dan Stein, executive director of the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) in Washington. "Substitutes erode bargaining leverage and decrease offered wages. Supply and demand works here as everywhere else."

Illegals: 11 million or 20 million?

Even the number of illegal immigrants is in dispute. About 30 percent of immigrants - an estimated 11 million - are here illegally, according to most government and private sources. That figure is believed to be growing by some 500,000 a year, according to the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly the Immigration and Naturalization Service).

(Graphic) SOURCE: 'THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF HIGH-SKILLED IMMIGRANTS,' BY NEERAJ KAUSHAL, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY ECONOMIST, AND MICHAEL FIX, VICE PRESIDENT, MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE, JULY 2006 (CITING 2000 US CENSUS, BASED ON 5 PERCENT EXTRACTS OF THE INTEGRATED PUBLIC USE MICRODATA SERIES).; RICH CLABAUGH - STAFF
Click here to enlarge the image

But one research team posited last year that as many as 20 million illegal immigrants may be living in the US today. Robert Justich and Betty Ng of Bear Stearns, a global investment banking, securities trading, and brokerage firm, based their conclusion on a study of public school enrollment, language-proficiency programs, building permits, and the significant amount of money being sent home by undocumented workers.

One of their conclusions: "Four [million] to six million jobs have shifted to the underground market as small businesses take advantage of the vulnerability of illegal residents."

There's another kind of vulnerability as well. In an investigative report this month, the Chicago Tribune found that illegal immigrants face disproportionate injuries and fatalities - often unreported - doing hazardous jobs like meat-cutting and dry-cleaning.

About half the total US population increase these days is Hispanic, according to the US Census Bureau, making Hispanics the largest and fastest-growing racial or ethnic minority. Part of that rise is children born to Hispanics already in the country. The rest comes from immigration. Fifty-seven percent of those newcomers are from Mexico, and another 24 percent are from other Latin American countries, according to the Pew Hispanic Center, a nonpartisan research group in Washington.

Influx helps Social Security

On average, Hispanics in the US are considerably younger than the population as a whole: Their median age is about 27 compared with about 36 for the country generally. That means that as older non-Hispanics retire, there will be relatively more workers to pay into Social Security. It also means more Hispanics in the future. About one-third of them are under 18 - just entering the years when they'll have children of their own.

"People come for a place to raise their kids, where there's a future," says Marcel Cueva, a Lawrenceville cab driver who came from the Dominican Republic 18 years ago and recently became a US citizen.

"Other places like New York have become too expensive," says Mr. Cueva, who has four children and soon may be joined here by his father. "You can make money, but the money is gone. Here you can keep some of it."

The fact that the US has recently become home to an extraordinary number of immigrants also may indicate a new direction for the country as it moves on toward 400 million people, probably sometime in the middle of the century.

"It says that we're going to be a country that is more outwardly reaching to the rest of the world, that we'll be more multicultural than we've been in the recent past," says William Frey, a demographer at the University of Michigan and the Brookings Institution think tank in Washington.

(Graphic)
SOURCE: CENSUS BUREAU; RICH CLABAUGH - STAFF

 

Next: Part 3 • The environmental load of 300 million: How heavy?

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
BOOMING BUSINESS: Dominic Paz's taxi customers are mostly Hispanic these days. But Georgia's recent curbs on illegal immigration have caused concern, he says.
PATRIK JONSSON

 

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19 novembre 2006 7 19 /11 /novembre /2006 19:01
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19 novembre 2006 7 19 /11 /novembre /2006 11:10

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Ethelred II

ethelred II  the unready .

968- 1016

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethelred_the_Unready

 

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19 novembre 2006 7 19 /11 /novembre /2006 10:55

 

.....

 

BASILIQUE 

Sur la route qui mène à Vézelay,

la croix Montjoie

 symbolise la joie du pèlerin apercevant pour la première fois la basilique.

En effet, c'est à pied qu'il faut rejoindre ce haut lieu de la chrétienté du Moyen Âge, lieu de pèlerinage important sur le chemin de Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle, dont le tympan du narthex de la basilique est un des chefs-d'œuvre de la sculpture romane.

 
 
 

 
 
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Abbatiale

  • L'abbé Geoffroy expose les reliques de Marie-Madeleine.
  •  
  • Des miracles se produisent.
  • Les pèlerins affluent et font de Vézelay une étape sur le chemin de Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle.
  • 1096 : L'abbé Artaud entreprend l'édification d'une nouvelle église, un nouveau chœur et un nouveau transept sont construits, les travaux dureront jusqu'en 1104. Seule la nef de l'église carolingienne sera conservée.
  • 21 avril 1104 : Dédicace du chœur et du transept de la nouvelle église.
  • 1106 : Les habitants, qui ne supportent plus la charge du financement des travaux de construction de la nouvelle église, se révoltent et tuent l'abbé Artaud.
  • Le 25 juillet 1120, c'est lors de la veillée de Sainte-Madeleine, que la charpente de l'abbatiale prend feu et s'effondre (causant la mort de 1127 personnes). Une nouvelle nef sera construite et celle-ci est achevée en 1138.
  • 1125-1130 : Réalisation des sculptures du tympan du portail central.
Saint Bernard prêchant la 2e croisade, à Vézelay, en 1146
Agrandir
Saint Bernard prêchant la 2e croisade, à Vézelay, en 1146
  • En 1537, l'abbaye est sécularisée.
  • En 1790, l'abbatiale de Sainte Marie-Madeleine devient une simple église paroissiale.
  •  
  • L'abbaye, vendue à la Révolution a servi de carrière de pierres, il n'en reste pratiquement rien.
  •  
  • De l'abbaye il reste cependant la salle capitulaire en bon état de conservation, servant aujourd'hui de chapelle annexe et le long de cette salle quelques arcades du cloitre. Les maisons adjacentes portent toutes des traces des batiments conventuels qui étaient sans doute de grande proportion.
  • C'est en 1840 qu'intervient Eugène Viollet-le-Duc pour la restauration du bâtiment, suite à l'inspection faite par Prosper Mérimée. En effet, l'église avait subi bien des dommages avec le saccage par les Huguenots en 1569, les sculptures du tympan avaient été martelées aux alentours de 1793 et la foudre s'est abattue en 1819 sur la Tour St-Michel. La restauration s'achève en 1876 par la remise des reliques de Sainte Marie-Madeleine et le rétablissement des pèlerinages, qui seront de nouveaux arrêtés en 1912.
  • Enfin en 1920, Sainte Marie-Madeleine est érigée au rang de basilique et les pèlerinages peuvent enfin reprendre.
  • Ce n'est qu'en 1979 que la basilique rentrera dans le patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO.

Galerie [modifier]

Cliquez sur une vignette pour l'agrandir.

Voir aussi [modifier]

Articles connexes [modifier]

Liens externes [modifier]

Wikimedia Commons propose des documents multimédia sur Abbaye de Vézelay.

Sources [modifier]

  • Jean de la Monneraye, « Sainte Marie-Madeleine de Vezelay », Paris, Horizons de France - Société Française des presses suisses, 1968.
  • Sur la route qui mène à Vézelay, la croix Montjoie symbolise la joie du pèlerin apercevant pour la première fois la basilique. En effet, c'est à pied qu'il faut rejoindre ce haut lieu de la chrétienté du Moyen Âge, lieu de pèlerinage important sur le chemin de Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle, dont le tympan du narthex de la basilique est un des chefs-d'œuvre de la sculpture romane.

    Sommaire

     

     

     

     

    http://www.art-roman.net/vezelay/vezelay.htm


     

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    Vézelay est placé sous le patronage de Marie-Madeleine depuis 1050. Et depuis lors, des foules de pélerins s'y pressèrent. Saint Bernard y prêcha la deuxième croisade en 1146. Le troisième croisade partira de Vézelay en 1190.
        L'édification de la basilique fut entreprise par l'abbé Artaud en 1096. La nef fut reconstruite, après un gigantesque incendie le 21 juillet 1120, par Renaud de Semur, de 1120 à 1140. Le choeur et l'abside actuels, gothiques, furent rebâtis à la fin du 12è siècle.
    La basilique de la Madeleine était en ruines quand
    sa restauration fut entreprise par Viollet-le-Duc en 1840.
                                           
                                         
            Si vous cliquez sur les photos qui ont une bordure bleu clair, vous pourrez les admirer en grand format            
            La nef mesure 62,50 m de long et 18,55 m de haut. Elle est voûtée d'arêtes. Les arcs doubleaux en plein cintre sont constitués de claveaux de pierre blanche et brune                
                    La façade ouest : le tympan central fut sculpté en 1856, lors de la restauration de la basilique. Le pignon est du 13è siècle.        
                      L'élévation est à deux étages. Les piles sont cruciformes avec des
    demi-colonnes engagées.
                                        –›
           
                                           
              ‹– Les collatéraux sont également voûtés d'arêtes.          
                          ‹– Le narthex a les dimensions d'une véritable église : 22 m de long, 23,50 m de large, 19,50 m de haut. Il fut bâti de 1140 à 1150.    
                                               
                                     
                                       
                                    Les collatéraux supportent des tribunes qui s'ouvrent sur la partie centrale par des petits arcs en plein cintre reposant sur des colonnettes.  
            La croisée d'ogives de la partie centrale est la plus ancienne de Bourgogne.                                  
                                               
                          Les collatéraux sont voûtés d'arêtes sur doubleaux.                    
                                               
                    Une crypte s'étend sous le choeur : elle date de l'époque carolingienne. Elle est vaste : 19 m de long et 9,20 de large. Elle est couverte de voûtes d'arêtes reposant sur douze colonnes de grosseurs inégales.                          –›        
            Le narthex comporte à l'étage une chapelle dédiée à Saint-Michel.