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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhimmitude

 

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voir aussi   MILLET ( empire Ottoman )

EURABIA   ( Europe Arabisée )

    

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhimmitude

 

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Dhimmitude is a neologism first found in French denoting an attitude of concession, surrender and appeasement towards Islamic demands. It is derived by adding the productive suffix -tude to the Arabic language adjective dhimmi, which literally means protected and refers to a non-Muslim subject of a sharia law state.

Dhimmitude has several distinct, but related meanings depending on the author; its scope may be historical only, contemporary only, or both. It may encompass the whole system of dhimma, look only at its subjects (dhimmis), or even apply it outside of any established system of dhimma.

Contents

[edit] Origin

The term was coined in 1982 by the Lebanese President and Maronite militia leader Bachir Gemayel, in reference to perceived attempts by the country's Muslim leadership to subordinate the large Lebanese Christian minority. In a speech of September 14, 1982 given at Dayr al-Salib in Lebanon, he said: "Lebanon is our homeland and will remain a homeland for Christians… We want to continue to christen, to celebrate our rites and traditions, our faith and our creed whenever we wish… Henceforth, we refuse to live in any dhimmitude!"[1]

The concept of "dhimmitude" was introduced into Western discourse by the writer Bat Ye'or in a French-language article published in the Italian journal La Rassegna mensile di Israel in 1983.[2] The term was used in English as early as 1985 in a book review by Prof. James E. Biechler in the Journal of Ecumenical Studies, in which he praised Ye'or's work, commenting that "Perhaps the single most significant contribution of the author is her definition and development of the concept of 'dhimmitude'".[3]

Ye'or further popularised the term in her books The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam. From Jihad to Dhimmitude. Seventh-Twentieth Century[4] and the 2003 followup Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide[5] After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the term became far more widely used, particularly in discussions about Islamism and the Islamization of the West.

Associations and usage

The associations of the word "dhimmitude" vary between users:

  • Bat Ye'or defined dhimmitude as the condition and experience of those who are subject to dhimma, and thus not synonymous to, but rather a subset of the dhimma phenomenon: "dhimmitude [...] represents a behavior dictated by fear (terrorism), pacifism when aggressed, rather than resistance, servility because of cowardice and vulnerability. [...] By their peaceful surrender to the Islamic army, they obtained the security for their life, belongings and religion, but they had to accept a condition of inferiority, spoliation and humiliation."[6]

 

  • It may be simply a replacement for the relatively little known (compared to dhimmi) noun dhimma, coined to carry the same meaning.[7] This has already widely happened in French usage where, as in English, "-tude" is a productive suffix.

 

  • A more recent pejorative usage variant of "dhimmi" and "dhimmitude" divorces the words from the historical context of jihad and applies them to situations where non-Muslims in the West and India are championing Islamic causes above others. "Dhimmi" is treated as analogous to "Quisling" within this context.

 

 Sample views

Bat Yeor's definition:

"As for the concept of dhimmitude, it represents a behavior dictated by fear (terrorism), pacifism when aggressed, rather than resistance, servility because of cowardice and vulnerability. The origin of this concept is to be found in the condition of the Infidel people who submit to the Islamic rule without fighting in order to avoid the onslaught of jihad. By their peaceful surrender to the Islamic army, they obtained the security for their life, belongings and religion, but they had to accept a condition of inferiority, spoliation and humiliation. As they were forbidden to possess weapons and give testimony against a Muslim, they were put in a position of vulnerability and humility."[8]

Bernard Lewis, Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University, states that

"If we look at the considerable literature available about the position of Jews in the Islamic world, we find two well-established myths. One is the story of a golden age of equality, of mutual respect and cooperation, especially but not exclusively in Moorish Spain; the other is of “dhimmi”-tude, of subservience and persecution and ill treatment. Both are myths. Like many myths, both contain significant elements of truth, and the historic truth is in its usual place, somewhere in the middle between the extremes."[9]

Robert Spencer author of The Myth of Islamic Tolerance defines dhimmitude as:

Dhimmitude is the status that Islamic law, the Sharia, mandates for non-Muslims, primarily Jews and Christians. Dhimmis, “protected” or “guilty” people, are free to practice their religion in a Sharia regime, but are made subject to a number of humiliating regulations designed to enforce the Qur'an's command that they "feel themselves subdued" (Sura 9:29).

 

 

This denial of equality of rights and dignity remains part of the Sharia, and, as such, are part of the legal superstructure that global jihadists are laboring through violence to restore everywhere in the Islamic world, and wish ultimately to impose on the entire human race. [10]

 

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Dhimmitude

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Dhimmitude is a neologism borrowed from the French language. It is derived by adding the productive suffix -tude to the Arabic noun dhimmi, which refers to a non-Muslim subject of a Muslim state.

There are several distinct variations, depending on the author. The original neologism as introduced by Bat Ye'or refers to ill treatment and subjugation of non-Muslims by Muslims. The term has been criticized as a myth[1] or as Islamophobic[2].

Contents

 [hide

Origin

The term was coined in 1982 by the Lebanese President and Maronite militia leader Bachir Gemayel, in reference to perceived attempts by the country's Muslim leadership to subordinate the large Lebanese Christian minority. In a speech of September 14, 1982 given at Dayr al-Salib in Lebanon, he said: "Lebanon is our homeland and will remain a homeland for Christians… We want to continue to christen, to celebrate our rites and traditions, our faith and our creed whenever we wish… Henceforth, we refuse to live in any dhimmitude!"[3]

The concept of "dhimmitude" was introduced into Western discourse by the writer Bat Ye'or in a French-language article published in the Italian journal La Rassegna mensile di Israel in 1983.[4] In Bat Ye'or's use, "dhimmitude" refers to allegations of non-Muslims appeasing and surrendering to Muslims, and discrimination against non-Muslims in Muslim majority regions.[5]

Ye'or further popularized the term in her books The Decline of Eastern Christianity: From Jihad to Dhimmitude[6] and the 2003 followup Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide[7]

In a 2011 interview, she claimed to have indirectly inspired Gemayel's use of the term.[8]

Associations and usage

The associations of the word "dhimmitude" vary between users:

  • Bat Ye'or defined dhimmitude as the condition and experience of those who are subject to dhimma, and thus not synonymous to, but rather a subset of the dhimma phenomenon: "dhimmitude [...] represents a behavior dictated by fear (terrorism), pacifism when aggressed, rather than resistance, servility because of cowardice and vulnerability. [...] By their peaceful surrender to the Islamic army, they obtained the security for their life, belongings and religion, but they had to accept a condition of inferiority, spoliation and humiliation. As they were forbidden to possess weapons and give testimony against a Muslim, they were put in a position of vulnerability and humility."[9] The term plays a key role in the allegedly Islamophobic[10] conspiracy theory of Eurabia.[11]
  • A more recent pejorative usage variant of "dhimmi" and "dhimmitude" divorces the words from the historical context and applies them to situations where non-Muslims in the West and India are championing Islamic causes above others. "Dhimmi" is treated as analogous to "Quisling" within this context.[citation needed]
  • Anders Breivik, who identified Bat Ye'or as a key influence, used the term "dhimmitude" in his internet postings to describe what he called "jihad against the kaffir".[12]
  • Sidney H. Griffith states that it "has come to express the theoretical, social condition" of non-Muslims "under Muslim rule".[13]
  • According to Bassam Tibi, dhimmitude refers to non-Muslims being "allowed to retain their religious beliefs under certain restrictions". He describes that status as being inferior and a violation of religious freedom.[14]

Criticism

Mark R. Cohen, a leading scholar of the history of Jewish communities of medieval Islam, has criticized the term as misleading and Islamophobic.[2]

Bernard Lewis, Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University, states that,

"If we look at the considerable literature available about the position of Jews in the Islamic world, we find two well-established myths. One is the story of a golden age of equality, of mutual respect and cooperation, especially but not exclusively in Moorish Spain; the other is of “dhimmi”-tude, of subservience and persecution and ill treatment. Both are myths. Like many myths, both contain significant elements of truth, and the historic truth is in its usual place, somewhere in the middle between the extremes."[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Bernard Lewis, 'The New Anti-Semitism', The American Scholar Journal - Volume 75 No. 1 Winter 2006 pp. 25-36.
  2. ^ a b Cohen, Mark R. (2011). "Modern Myths of Muslim Anti-Semitism". In Ma'oz, Moshe. Muslim Attitudes to Jews and Israel: The Ambivalences of Rejection, Antagonism, Tolerance and Cooperation. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 1845195272. 
  3. ^ As reprinted in Lebanon News 8, no. 18 (September 14, 1985), 1-2
  4. ^ Bat Ye'or, "Terres arabes: terres de 'dhimmitude'", in La Cultura Sefardita, vol. 1, La Rassegna mensile di Israel 44, no. 1-4, 3rd series (1983): 94-102
  5. ^ Griffith, Sidney H., The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude, Seventh-Twentieth Century, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4. (Nov., 1998), pp. 619-621, doi:10.1017/S0020743800052831.
  6. ^ Bat Ye'or (1996). The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam. From Jihad to Dhimmitude. Seventh-Twentieth Century. Madison/Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press/Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3688-8. 
  7. ^ Bat Ye'or (2003). Islam and Dhimmitude. Where Civilizations Collide. Madison/Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press/Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3943-7. 
  8. ^ "I founded the word dhimmitude and I discussed it with my Lebanese friends [...] My friend spoke about this word to Bashir Gemayel who used it in his last speech before his assassination." in An Egyptian Jew in Exile: An Interview with Bat Ye’or[1], newenglishreview.org, October 2011
  9. ^ John W. Whitehead, An interview with Bat Ye'or. Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, 5 September 2005
  10. ^ Carr, M. (2006). "You are now entering Eurabia". Race & Class 48: 1. doi:10.1177/0306396806066636. http://rac.sagepub.com/content/48/1/1.abstract. 
  11. ^ Færseth, John (2011). "Eurabia – ekstremhøyres konspirasjonsteori". Fri Tanke (Human-Etisk Forbund) (3-4): 38. http://fritanke.no/filarkiv/pdf/fri_tanke_0311.pdf#page=38. Retrieved 22. June 2012. 
  12. ^ Liz Fekete. "The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre". Race & Class (SAGE Publications) 53. http://rac.sagepub.com/content/53/3/30.abstract. 
  13. ^ Sidney H. Griffith (2010). The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691146284. 
  14. ^ Tibi, Bassam (April 2008). "The Return of the Sacred to Politics as a Constitutional Law The Case of the Shari'atization of Politics in Islamic Civilization". Theoria: 98. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/berghahn/theoria/2008/00000055/00000115/art00006. 

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Eurabia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Eurabia is an islamophobic conspiracy theory foretelling an IslamizedEurope. A political neologism, the word is a portmanteau of Europe and Arabia, first coined as a name for the newsletter of a Euro-Arab friendship committee in the 1970s.[1] It was revived as a political term by writer Gisele Littman (Bat Ye'Or). In Littman's use, it denotes a conspiracy theory, where European and Arab powers aim to Islamise and Arabise Europe, undermining previous alignment with the U.S. and Israel.[2][3] Several similar conspiracy theories have been developed from Littman's "Mother conspiracy theory".[4] The term is used by far-right activists[5], by members of the counterjihad movement,[6] by conservative writers.[7]

The premises common to these theories are that Europe is undergoing a rapid demographic transition, induced by "European politicians and civil servants",[8] that will lead to a Muslim majority, and that these Muslims will have an unchanging, hostile attitude toward their national communities.[9] Other premises, such as acquiring the compliance of or control over bureaucracies, intelligentsias and European political leaders are frequent.[10] The conspiracy theories have been explicitly compared to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion or the Zionist Occupation Government.[11][12] The prospect of a Muslim majority in Europe is regarded by leading demographers as extremely unlikely in the foreseeable future.[13] The Pew Research Center notes that "the data that we have isn't pointing in the direction of 'Eurabia' at all"[14], with the percentage of Muslims rising on the continent to 8% in 2030.[13]

Contents

 [hide

Origin of the concept

Eurabia was the title of a newsletter published by the Comité européen de coordination des associations d'amitié avec le monde Arabe.[15] According to Bat Ye'or, who has been perhaps the most influential Eurabia theorist in recent years, it was published collaboratively with France-Pays Arabes (journal of the Association de solidarité franco-arabe or ASFA), Middle East International (London), and the Groupe d'Etudes sur le Moyen-Orient (Geneva).[16]

After the September 11 attacks Muslims and the Arab world emerged as a perceived threat.[12] Muslim minority populations and Muslim immigration gained new political significance. Scholar José Pedro Zúquete notes that

the threat that the Crescent will rise over the continent and the spectre of a Muslim Europe have become basic ideological features and themes of the European extreme right [5]

Eurabia had then re-entered into the vocabulary through Bat Ye’Or’s work, most notably the book published in 2005, Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis,[2] although she first used the term in 2002.[16][17] Subsequently, the coining of the term has been attributed to her.[18] In Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, Bat Ye'or claims that Eurabia is the result of the French-led European policy originally intended to increase European power against the United States by aligning its interests with those of the Arab countries. During the 1973 oil crisis, the European Economic Community (predecessor of the European Union), had entered into the Euro-Arab Dialogue (EAD) with the Arab League.[19] Ye’or notes it as a primary cause of alleged European hostility to Israel, referring to joint Euro-Arab foreign policies that she characterizes as anti-American and anti-Zionist.[16] Her definition of Eurabia is:

Eurabia is a geo-political reality envisaged in 1973 through a system of informal alliances between, on the one hand, the nine countries of the European Community (EC) which, enlarged, became the European Union (EU) in 1992 and on the other hand, the Mediterranean Arab countries. The alliances and agreements were elaborated at the top political level of each EC country with the representative of the European Commission, and their Arab homologues with the Arab League's delegate. This system was synchronised under the roof of an association called the Euro-Arab Dialogue (EAD) created in July 1974 in Paris.[20]

Ye’or established the close connection of the Eurabia conspiracy and the term "dhimmitude", denoting alleged “western subjection to Islam”.[18]

Impact

Academic

The Eurabia theories are dismissed as islamophobic and extremist[3][5] conspiracy theories in the academic community[21] and in the mainstream media.[22] At first academics showed little interest in the Eurabia theories due to their lack of factual basis.[4][12] The theme was treated in studies of rightist extremism[5] and Middle East Politics.[23] This changed after the 2011 Norway attacks, which resulted in the publication of several works specifically treating the Eurabia conspiracy theories.[18][24] However, a member of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Janne Haaland Matlary has discouraged such analyses, arguing that “it is poor use of time to analyse something so primitive”.[25] The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, a project under the Pew Research Center, released a comprehensive report in January 2011, which projected a 2 percentage point growth of the European Muslim population in the period 2010-2030, from 6% to 8% of the total European populace.[13] The Pew Research Center estimates the Muslim share of Europe's population to grow from 6% to 8% or, in absolute numbers, from 44.1 to 58.2 million people between 2010 and 2030.[13] In several Western and Northern European states, the Muslim population will approach double-digit percentages.[13]

European politics

The theories have failed to impact most policy makers and academics.[12] They have, however become a basic theme in the European extremist right. Through political competition with far-right parties with parliamentary representation the main anti-Islamic theme has also penetrated into mainstream European politics,[5] for instance in the case of Geert Wilders:

This government is enthusiastically co-operating with the Islamization of the Netherlands. In all of Europe the elite opens the floodgates wide. In only a little while, one in five people in the European Union will be Muslim. Good news for this multiculti-government that views bowing to the horrors of Allah as its most important task. Good news for the CDA : C-D-A, in the meanwhile stands for Christians Serve Allah.[26]

This has led to the adaption of political positions that were previously considered extreme, but has also led to significant alterations in the asserted positions of the far right, notably when it comes to the rights of women and homosexuals.[5][27][28]

2011 Norway attacks

2083: A European Declaration of Independence, the manifesto of Anders Behring Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, includes a lengthy discussion of and support for the "Eurabia" theory. It also contains several articles on the Eurabia theme by Bat Ye’Or and Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen (Fjordman). [29] As a result, the theory received widespread mainstream media attention following the attacks.[30] In the verdict against Breivik, the court noted that "many people share Breivik's conspiracy theory, including the Eurabia theory. The court finds that very few people, however, share Breivik's idea that the alleged "Islamization" should be fought with terror."[31]

U.S. politics

In the United States, the theories have found strong proponents in the counterjihad movement, among them the president of Stop Islamization of America, Robert Spencer[32] and right-wing political commentator Daniel Pipes.[33] Eurabia theories have also been espoused by less typical conservatives, for example, Bruce Bawer.[34] In his 2011-2012 run for the Republican presidential nomination, Rick Santorum warned that Europe was “creating an opportunity for the creation of Eurabia”, and that the continent was “losing, because they are not having children.”[35]

Eurabia Literature

Main works

Bat Ye’Or’s ‘’Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis’’ was the first print publication in the Eurabia genre,[18] which has since grown to a number of titles,[36][9] including Melanie Phillips’ ‘’Londonistan’’,[37]Walter Laqueur’s ‘’The Last Days of Europe’’,[38], Oriana Fallaci’s ‘’The Force of Reason’’,[39] and Bruce Bawer’s ‘’While Europe Slept’’.[40] The term is often used by the writers (Fallaci),[41][42] (Steyn)[43][44][45] and several web sites, many of them affiliated with the counterjihad movement.[46]Peder Are Nøstvold Jensen’s ‘’Defeating Eurabia’’[47] earned him a high standing among far-right extremists.[48]

Laqueur has since nuanced his position and written that "the fears that Europe risks becoming a Muslim-dominated Eurabia, adopting Sharia, are a vast distortion of the views of serious students of Europe's present state and future prospects". He notes that Muslim immigrants to Europe come from many different countries, the majority non-Arab, and that they have "common interests... but also great differences, even in their attitudes to religion".[49]

Critical comment

The Economist, acknowledging that integration of immigrants was a difficult process, nevertheless rejected the concept of Eurabia as "scaremongering".[50]Simon Kuper in Financial Times described Ye'or's book as "little-read but influential", and akin to "Protocols of the Elders of Zion in reverse", adding that "though ludicrous, Eurabia became the spiritual mother of a genre".[36] In another article, Kuper wrote that most academics who have analysed the demographics dismiss the predictions that the EU will have Muslim majorities.[51]

According to Marján and Sapir, the very idea of "Eurabia" is "based on an extremist conspiracy theory, according to which Europe and the Arab states would join forces to make life impossible for Israel and Islamize the old continent."[3]

Writing in Race & Class in 2006, author and freelance journalist Matt Carr argued that Eurabia had moved from "an outlandish conspiracy theory" to a "dangerous Islamophobic fantasy". Carr states,

"In order to accept Ye’or’s ridiculous thesis, it is necessary to believe not only in the existence of a concerted Islamic plot to subjugate Europe, involving all Arab governments, whether ‘Islamic’ or not, but also to credit a secret and unelected parliamentary body with the astounding ability to transform all Europe’s major political, economic and cultural institutions into subservient instruments of ‘jihad’ without any of the continent’s press or elected institutions being aware of it. Nowhere in this ideologically driven interpretation of European-Arab relations does Ye’or come close to proving the ‘secret history’ that she professes to reveal."[11]

Arun Kundnani, writing for the International Centre for Counter-terrorism, notes that "Eurabia" fulfills the Counterjihad-movement's "structural need" for a conspiracy theory, and compares "Eurabia" to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[8]

Justin Vaïsse, co-author of Integrating Islam Political and Religious Challenges in Contemporary France, seeks to discredit what he calls, "four myths of the alarmist school," using Muslims in France as an example. Specifically he has written that the Muslim population growth rate was lower than that predicted by Eurabia, partly because the fertility rate of immigrants declines with integration.[52] He further points out that Muslims are not a monolithic or cohesive group,[53] and that many Muslims do seek to integrate politically and socially. Finally, he wrote that despite their numbers, Muslims have had little influence on French foreign policy.[54]

David Aaronovitch writes that the proponents of Eurabia confuse Islamists with mainstream Muslims. He acknowledges that the threat of "jihadist terror" may be real, but that there was no threat of Eurabia. Aaronovitch concludes that those of study conspiracy theories will recognize Eurabia to be a theory that combines the "Sad Dupes thesis to the Enemy Within idea".[55]

The Eurabia theory has been compared by British columnist Johann Hari to historically antisemitic writing. He calls the two "startlingly similar" and says that "there are intellectuals on the British right who are propagating a conspiracy theory about Muslims that teeters very close to being a 21st century Protocols of the Elders of Mecca."[56]

In his book Wars of Blood and Faith, US military analyst Ralph Peters states that far from being about to take over Europe through demographic change, "Europe's Muslims are living on borrowed time" and that in the event of a major terrorist attack in Europe, thanks to the "ineradicable viciousness" of Europeans and what he perceives as a historical tendency to over-react to real or perceived threats, European Muslims "will be lucky if they're only deported."[57]

Eric Kaufmann, author of Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century (2011), argues that a Muslim majority is extremely unlikely in Europe in the near or long-term. He states "Even if higher Muslim fertility rates do not persist, Islam will make a significant imprint on European life—so saner Eurabian ideas should be publicly discussed. Nonetheless, the overwhelming weight of demographic evidence points towards a decline in Muslim fertility and a more plural Europe."[58]

Notes

  1. ^WorldCat.org "Eurabia (item listing)". Worldcat. http://www.worldcat.org/title/eurabia/oclc/5966570 WorldCat.org. Retrieved May 11, 2012. 
  2. ^ a bYe’or, Bat (2005). Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis. New Jersey, USA: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-0838640777. 
  3. ^ a b cMarján, Attila; André Sapir (2010). Europe's Destiny. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-8018-9547-2. 
  4. ^ a b"Eurabiske vers [Eurabian verses]" (in Norwegian). Morgenbladet. August 19, 2011. http://morgenbladet.no/samfunn/2011/eurabiske_vers. Retrieved April 27, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d e fZúquete, José Pedro (October 2008). "The European Extreme Right and Islam: New directions?". Journal of Political Ideologies 13 (3): 321–344. doi:10.1080/13569310802377019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13569310802377019. Retrieved April 22, 2012. 
  6. ^Examples of proponent's use:

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